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Typhoid Fever


Diagnosis of typhoid fever is primarily a physical examination and medical history. If the patient reports that he has been in countries where Salmonella typhi infections are common and have symptoms, typhoid fever can be suspected. In addition, the doctor, based on indications, may decide to expand the diagnosis - with blood tests. 1)


Symptoms of typhoid fever in the first phase of the disease are uncharacteristic fever, general weakness, apathy, loss of appetite, headaches, abdominal pain, constipation, bloating, insomnia, and diarrhea. Toward the end of this phase, the patient may experience slowing of the heart rate (bradycardia), enlargement of the liver and spleen, and slowing of movement and coughing. 2)

Zoonotic disease

Typhoid fever is a disease that is caused by a bacterium: rickettsia prowazekii, commonly known as rickettsia. It is worth noting that it is a typically zoonotic disease, which is transmitted by lice and fleas. 3)

Heavily populated areas

It can be categorized as a disease that occurs in heavily populated areas, as well as polluted areas. 4)

Lack of hygiene

Spotted typhus is primarily the result of a lack of hygiene and ubiquitous dirt. 5)

Lice and fleas

Lice and fleas can also linger in places or even facilities that are contaminated, and in those where rats are present. They are largely responsible for the transmission of this contagious disease. 6)


Typhoid can also be contracted through direct contact with a sick person or a carrier of the bacteria if hygiene rules are not observed, including, most importantly, hand washing. 7)

Appearance of the tongue

The appearance of the tongue is characteristic of typhoid fever - inside it is covered with a dry brown coating, while at the edges it is sharply red. 8)

Recovery phase

Usually, after about 3 weeks after the first symptoms of typhoid fever, the patient enters the recovery phase. 9)


During the complication phase of typhoid fever, death can occur. It occurs in about 10 percent of cases of untreated disease. Mainly among people with comorbid chronic diseases, or in cachectic patients, improperly nourished or young children, and the elderly. In those treated with antibiotics, the incidence of death is lower, at about 2 percent. 10)

typhoid_fever.txt · Last modified: 2022/12/05 04:22 by aga