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Sonic The Hedgehog

Video Game Series

Sonic the Hedgehog is a video game series and media property from Japan.1)


Sega created and owns it.2)

Hedgehog And Eggman

Sonic, an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog, confronts the nefarious Doctor Eggman, a mad scientist, in the franchise.3)


Sonic the Hedgehog games are generally platformers created by Sonic Team. Other studio-created games include spin-offs in the racing, combat, party, and sports genres.4)

Not Only Video Games

Print media, cartoons, feature films, and merchandising are also part of the series.5)

First Sonic Game

Sega created the first Sonic game for the Sega Genesis in 1991 to compete with Nintendo's mascot Mario.6)

Success In 4th Generation

Its popularity aided Sega's rise to prominence throughout the fourth generation of video game systems in the early 1990s.7)

Next Games

Sega Technical Institute created the following three Sonic games, as well as the spin-off Sonic Spinball (1993).8)

Sonic Adventure

Sonic Adventure, the first major 3D Sonic game, was published in 1998 for the Dreamcast after a gap during the failed Saturn period.9)

3rd Party

In 2001, Sega departed the console market and turned to third-party production, with the series continuing on Nintendo, Xbox, and PlayStation consoles.10)

Characteristic Elements

While Sonic games frequently include distinct game mechanics and narrative, repeating features like as the ring-based health system, level settings, and fast-paced action are present.11)

Defeat Eggman

Sonic usually sets out to foil Eggman's plans for world dominance in the games.12)


Levels contain springs, slopes, bottomless pits, and vertical loops that the player must cross.13)

New Characters

Later games included a vast cast of characters, including Miles “Tails” Prower, Knuckles the Echidna, and Shadow the Hedgehog, who have appeared in spin-offs.14)


In titles such as Mario & Sonic, Sega All-Stars, and Super Smash Bros., the series has crossed over with other video game franchises.15)

Great Selling

Sonic the Hedgehog is Sega's flagship property and one of the most successful video game series, with over 140 million units sold by 2016. As of 2020, it has earned more than $6 billion.16)


As of 2020, series sales and free-to-play mobile game downloads reached 1.14 billion.17)

1990s Culture

The Genesis Sonic games have been considered as being indicative of 1990s culture.18)

Not Always The Best

It is regarded as one of the best games of all time, while subsequent titles, most notably the 2006 series relaunch, have been chastised for a perceived fall in quality.19)


Sonic is a well-known figure in the video gaming business. It appears frequently in popular culture. The franchise is well-known for its fans, which creates unauthorized material including fan art and fangames.20)

Sega Genesis

By 1990, Sega, a Japanese video game manufacturer, aimed to establish a presence in the video game console industry with their 16-bit platform, the Sega Genesis.21)

Nintendo's Supremacy

Sega's attempts have been thwarted by Nintendo's supremacy. The Genesis had a small installed base, and Nintendo did not regard Sega as a significant rival.22)


Sega of America CEO Michael Katz sought to challenge Nintendo with the “Genesis does what Nintendo doesn't” marketing campaign and by working on game development with sports and celebrities. These attempts were ineffective, and Katz was replaced by Tom Kalinske, previously of Mattel.23)

Need For Flagship Series

Hayao Nakayama, Sega's president, determined the company required a flagship series and mascot to compete with Nintendo's Mario brand. Nintendo had just launched Super Mario Bros. 3, which was the best-selling video game at the time.24)


Sega's aim has been to transfer their popular arcade games to the Genesis.25)


Sega, according to Nakayama, required a star character in a game that could showcase the strength of the Genesis' technology. An internal competition was organized to select a flagship game, with an emphasis on the American market. Artist Naoto Ohshima and programmer Yuji Naka were among those working on suggestions. Sonic the Hedgehog (1991)'s gameplay was inspired by a tech demo developed by Naka.26)

Creating Prototype

Naka had created an algorithm that allowed a sprite to move smoothly on a curve by using a dot matrix to determine its location. Naka's prototype featured a platform game in which a fast-moving figure rolled a ball down a lengthy and twisting tube. The concept was accepted by Sega management, and they were joined by designer Hirokazu Yasuhara.27)

Creating The Mascot

After Yasuhara joined Naka and Ohshima, their attention was drawn to the protagonist, whom Sega thought would become the company's mascot. The protagonist was originally a rabbit with prehensile ears that could grasp items, but the concept proved too complicated for the technology. The crew next considered creatures that could roll into a ball before settling on Sonic. Ohshima designed this teal hedgehog. Naka's prototype was expanded up using Ohshima's character design and Yasuhara's level design. Sonic's color scheme was influenced by the cover of Michael Jackson's 1987 album Bad, while his red and white sneakers were inspired by the cover of Sega's cobalt blue logo. His character was modeled by Bill Clinton's “can-do” mentality.28)


Doctor Eggman, the adversary, was another character Ohshima created for the competition. The crew believed the abandoned concept was fantastic and repurposed the figure as a villain.29)

First Appearance

Sonic initially appeared as an ornament hanging from the driver's rearview mirror in Sega AM3's racing game Rad Mobile (1991), five months before Sonic the Hedgehog was released. The Sonic producers allowed AM3 to utilize Sonic because they wanted to make the character more visible to the public.30)

sonic_the_hedgehog.txt · Last modified: 2022/08/31 00:42 by eziothekilla34