User Tools

Site Tools




After Plato's death (348/7 BC), Aristotle was the natural contender for the scholar of the Academy - but the other members of the Academy decided to choose Speusippus, Plato's nephew, because of the great divergence between the philosophical system developed by Aristotle and that of Plato. 1)

Anaximander of Miletus

Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610-546 BC) was one of the earliest Ionian natural philosophers, probably a student of Thales. He is suspected to have been the author of the first philosophical work in human history, known as Περὶ φύσεως (On Nature). He was the creator of the first map of the world and the author of the thesis that the stars revolve around the Pole Star. He was also the first philosopher to suggest that the Earth's surface is curved and that it can “float” in space. 2)


Protagoras with his views caused much controversy in Athens. He preached with his most important recorded sentence cognitive relativism. For his atheism, he was probably sentenced to be expelled from the Athenian community. 3)

Tusculan Disputations

In the Tusculan Disputations, Cicero discussed the issue of human happiness. This work was a praise of the power of human reason, which can control passions, pain, or fear of death. For centuries it was one of the most famous and quoted works of Cicero. Recommended in European schools and universities, they became one of the basic sources of European ethics through their universal character both theistic and atheistic. 4)

Gorgias of Leontinoi

Gorgias of Leontinoi (480- 385 BC) - Greek philosopher, one of the ten most prominent speakers in Ancient Greece, a precursor of art theory, and one of the leading sophists. He is the protagonist of Plato's dialogue “Gorgias”. The famous paradoxes of Gorgias are: Nothing exists. Even if there were something, it would be unknowable. Even if it were cognizable, it would still be impossible to convey knowledge about it. 5)

The unattractive

Socrates one of the most prominent philosophers of the time was not famous for his beauty. It is said that, on the contrary, he looked very unattractive. 6)

Idol of the youth

Socrates became an idol of the youth. In the old days, handsome musicians did not fascinate, fame among young people was gained by philosophers. 7)


Plato is said to have died of overeating and from overeating during a wedding feast. 8)

Sentenced to death

Socrates was sentenced to death and forced to commit suicide. 9)

View of pleasure

Among the ancient philosophers, we can find Aristippus, according to whom the most important thing for a person should be experiencing happiness. 10)

Nothing left behind

Socrates did not leave behind, not a single writing. His teachings remained on earth thanks to his disciples. 11)

Representative of Enlightenment philosophy

Voltaire was a leading representative of Enlightenment philosophy, which proclaimed the dogma of rational reason. He believed that religious tolerance and freedom was essential in society. 12)


Marcus Aurelius used to say that “A man is worth as much as the matters he is concerned with are worth.” A philosophical approach to matters where one must be able to restrain emotions, act rationally, and maintain a healthy distance made Marcus Aurelius one of the most highly regarded Roman emperors. 13)

About morality

Kant accepted the existence of God, but his conception of morality does not refer to the Absolute. For morality should arise not from the fear of God but is to be an end in itself. 14)

Existential philosophy

Søren Kierkegaard builds his existential philosophy on his interest in man, and how he relates to God. The questions he posed were rooted in his personal fears and anxieties, which he considered inseparable from human life. 15)

philosophy.txt · Last modified: 2022/10/05 02:27 by aga