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Large cranial volume

Neanderthals had a large cranial volume, which was larger than that of modern humans. Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals had shorter legs and larger bodies - this was probably an adaptation to keep warm in cold climates. Larger eye sockets suggest that their eyesight may have been better than that of modern humans. 1)

Neanderthal genes found in Africa

Interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans has occurred several times. DNA from Neanderthals has been found in the genome of modern populations in Europe and Asia, accounting for 1-4% of modern genomes. Neanderthal genes were thought to not be found in most modern populations of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it turned out there is more than suspected. 2)

The largest dinosaur fossil reserve

The Gobi Desert is the world's largest dinosaur fossil reserve. The first dinosaur skeletons in the Gobi Desert area were discovered during research in the 1920s. Since then, numerous national and international expeditions have discovered the fossils of more than 80 dinosaur species in the area. 3)

Neanderthals lived in Europe

Neanderthals lived in Europe. They were so named after the first place where their fossils were discovered in the mid-19th century - a river valley in Germany called Neanderthal. Neanderthal remains have been found in Europe (early range), and in southwestern, central, and northern Asia (late range). 4)

Skillful man

The Latin “homo habilis” literally means skillful man. The name homo habilis indicates that it was the first human ancestor to use and make stone tools. 5)


The largest prehistoric flying reptile is the quetzalcoatlus. The name comes from Quetzalcoatl, one of the most important gods of the Mesoamerican tribes, meaning “feathered serpent.” 6)

240 million years old

The remains of the oldest dinosaurs are about 240 million years old. They belong to genera such as Eoraptor, Herrerasaurus, Panphagia, etc. 7)

Upright man

The Latin “homo erectus” means upright man. The name homo erectus indicates that it was the first human ancestor that was bipedal. 8)

Thinking man

The Latin “homo sapiens” means thinking man. The name “homo sapiens” was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus. 9)

Mammoths' extinction

Mammoths disappeared from Europe and southern Siberia about 10,000 years ago. However, they survived longer in Alaska - they were still there less than 6,000 years ago. The last small population survived on Wrangel Island on the northeastern edge of Russia. They finally became extinct around toku 1650 B.C. more than a thousand years after the Egyptian pyramids were built. 10)

Britain becoming an island

About 14,000 years ago Britain was attached to Ireland, and 8,000 years ago it was attached to the continent by a strip of low wetlands leading to present-day Denmark and the Netherlands. Britain became an island at the end of the last glacial when sea levels rose due to the melting of glaciers and the subsequent isostatic rebound of the Earth's crust in northern Europe. 11)

Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains are among the oldest mountains on Earth, formed about 250-300 million years ago, during the collision of Laurazia with Kazakhstan. For their age, the mountains are exceptionally tall today. 12)

Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site in southeastern Turkey that contains the remains of a prehistoric sanctuary. Its origin is dated to 10,000 BC. According to the findings of Italian astrophysicist and archaeoastronomer Giulio Magli, the temple was a place of worship of Sirius. 13)


Denisovans are the first Homo species identified from the genome. We have only 3 teeth and the first phalanx was found (fig.) and destroyed for DNA extraction. They inhabited Siberia and mid-Asia. They interbred with both Neanderthals and modern humans, traces of their DNA are found in the genes of humans from Southeast Asia. 14)


Sahelanthropus are now considered the first hominid species. It is believed that they already moved on two legs. 15)

paleontology.txt · Last modified: 2021/10/21 02:34 by aga