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The Karakorum has its origins in 1220 when it was founded by Genghis Khan on the site of a former military base. In 1234, the great khan Ugedej made the Karakorum the capital of the Mongol Empire. In 1264 Khan Kubilai moved the capital to Zhongdu (Beijing), henceforth called Khanbalyk, meaning the City of the Khan. In 1388, the Karakorum was captured and partially destroyed by Chinese troops. As part of the scenic landscape of the Orkhon Valley, the ruins of Karakorum were included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. 1)

Coldest state capital

Thanks to its location at about 4,300 ft above sea level, hundreds of miles from any coastline, and the influence of the Siberian highlands on the city, Ulaanbaatar is the coldest state capital in the world. The average annual temperature here is 31.3 °F, similar to Nuuk, but Greenland is not an independent state. 2)

Deer stones

Deer stones are rock blocks found mainly in Siberia and Mongolia that depict images of animals flying to the sky, mostly reindeer and deer. The first deer stones were probably created in the mid-Bronze Age in central Mongolia. About 1,200 stones have been identified so far, 550 of them in Mongolia. Despite archaeological research, still little is known about their history, purpose, and socio-cultural functions. 3)

5,000 mastiffs

The record for the number of dogs owned belongs to Kubilai Khan. The grandson of Genghis Khan, the fifth great Mongolian Khan, and the first emperor of China from the Yuan dynasty. His court was visited by Marco Polo. He owned 5,000 Mastiff dogs used for hunting and war. 4)

Vertical script

The traditional vertical writing dates back to the times of the Mongol Empire and functioned until 1946 when the Cyrillic script was introduced. However, for several years it has been restored and taught in schools. 5)

Land of Blue Skies

Mongolia is called the “Land of Blue Skies” because it has more than 260 sunny days per year. 6)

Nomadic lifestyle

Mongolia is famous for its nomadic lifestyle - it is one of the few remaining nomadic cultures in the world - and it is estimated that between 30% and 40% of the country's people live this way. Mongolia's nomads are pastoralists who survive on livestock such as camels, cattle, and horses. 7)

Red Hero

Ulaanbaatar (population 949,000) is the capital of Mongolia and its largest city. As a nomadic city, the capital moved three times a year. The name means “Red Hero.” 8)


The official language is Mongolian. Turkish and Russian are also spoken here. 9)

Horseback riding

Horseback riding is a fundamental part of Mongolian nomadic culture, and it is even said that “A Mongol without a horse is like a bird without wings.” 10)


The largest annual festival in Mongolia is Naadam, which is celebrated throughout the country and includes the three national Mongolian sports of horse racing, archery, and wrestling. 11)

Gobi Desert

The vast Gobi Desert occupies much of southern Mongolia. 12)


Mongolia gained independence in 1921 with Soviet support, and a communist regime was established in 1924. 13)

The Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire founded by Ghenghis Khan in 1206 became the world's largest land empire of all time. 14)

Salt Lakes

Despite being landlocked, Mongolia has many salt lakes. Mongolian lakes and rivers contain over fifty unique species of fish. 15)

mongolia.txt · Last modified: 2021/12/09 02:33 by aga