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Mongol Empire

One Of The Largest In The World

The Mongol Empire was the world's greatest empire after the British Empire. It was the world's biggest contiguous empire. It encompassed a massive area of 9.3 square miles or 23 million square kilometers at its greatest extent, accounting for approximately 16.11 percent of the entire geographical area of the World. 1)


Mongols were nomads for as long as the Mongolian Empire existed. They used to roam in quest of food and shelter. 2)


Genghis Khan was born as Temujin in 1162 AD. His family was impoverished and struggled to make ends meet. He was kidnapped and imprisoned by a competing tribe, but he managed to escape and hide in a river fissure. Between 1178 and 1206, he unified several nomadic tribes of the Mongolian steppe in northeast Asia, eventually establishing the empire in 1206 AD. 3)

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan grew up on the frigid Mongolian grasslands. In his youth, he was known as Temujin. Temujin translates to “iron” in English. Ogedei, Tolui, Chagatai, and Jochi were Genghis Khan's four sons. Tolui's son, Kublai Khan, was another renowned Mongolian monarch. 4)

Early Expeditions

Mongols waged war against the Western Xia, who governed northwest China and portions of Tibet, from 1207 until 1210 AD. In 1210, the Xia surrendered to Genghis Khan. In 1211, Genghis Khan and his army crossed the Gobi Desert to fight the Jin Dynasty in northern China. Mongols invaded Zhongdu, the capital of the Jin Dynasty, in 1215 AD. 5)


The Mongols were infamous for their ruthlessness in combat. To conquer the kingdoms, they destroyed everything and ruthlessly killed people everywhere they went. 6)

Successful Campaigns

Genghis Khan and his troops launched a war against Transoxiana in 1219 AD (Now Central Asia). Mongols overthrew the Khwarezmid Empire in 1221 AD. They attacked and defeated the Kingdom of Georgia in 1223 AD. When Genghis Khan died in 1227 AD, his son Ogedei Khan ascended to the throne, and in 1235 AD, he built Karakorum, which is today in Mongolia. 7)


Babur, the first Mughal Emperor, was from the Mongol clan of the Barlas. 8)

Spreading Out

Between 1236 and 1260 AD, Mongols invaded and destroyed Korea and the Song Dynasty of China, while also defeating minor kingdoms in Armenia, Georgia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Vietnam, Syria, Egyptian Mamluks, and other places. 9)


The Mongols were strategists. During combat, they devised a flawless strategy to conquer other kingdoms, and most of the time, their methods were successful. Their crucial phase in the war was to encircle the adversary and instill terror in his thoughts. 10)

Excellent Warriors

Mongols originated amid the steppes and mountains of Euraasia. They were born in severe climates that ranged from extremely hot to extremely cold. Their parents taught them all of the military skills they needed as children. All of these factors contributed to their success in establishing a vast empire throughout Eurasia. 11)


According to one estimate, Genghis Khan and his army murdered 40 million people throughout their military operations. Because the Mongols were frightened of being conquered, they killed countless races across Eurasia. 12)

War Of Succession

Following Gedei Khan's death in 1241 AD, a succession conflict erupted among his family members. Töregene Khatun, Gedei's widow wife, gained leadership of the empire and ruled for five years. She was the most powerful woman in the world at the time. 13)

Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan was Genghis Khan's grandson who created the Yuan Dynasty and ruled from 1260 and 1294 AD. He established the Mongolian language school in 1269 AD. Marco Polo, the renowned adventurer and explorer, visited his court in the 1270s. He attempted two unsuccessful invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281 AD. Temur was his grandson and the Great Mongol Khan who succeeded him as the next Yuan Emperor. 14)

Khan Title

The supreme ruler was referred to as “Khan.” This name was derived from the Turkic empires of 552-734 AD, which were controlled by a ruler known as “khaqan.” 15)


The Khan's governing prerogative was seen as a command from Tengri, the main deity of the sky, and all the nomads who lived under it. Shamans were spiritual advisors to society because they could communicate with spirits. Many monarchs relied on shamans, while some claimed to be able to communicate with the gods directly. 16)

High Mountains

Because of their proximity to the skies, the Mongols considered high mountains to be sacred, and Burkhan Khaldun was their most sacred mountain. 17)

Tiny Soldiers

Mongol children were taught to ride horses by their moms at the age of three. To prevent damage, the youngsters would first be tethered to the horse, then after a few years, they would begin training with a bow and arrow. 18)


The Mongols perfected the usage of the bow and arrow, but they did not employ only one sort of arrow in warfare. Depending on the situation, they used both light and heavy arrows.19)

Shock And Awe

They would kill entire cities that opposed them as part of their shock and awe tactics. This instilled terror in the Empire, making future conquests more simpler. 20)


The Mongols would engage in battle by showering their opponents with arrows. The opponent would be forced to contract, allowing the Mongols to assault them in a broad front. They were also notorious for diverting their opponents away from concealed archers by appearing to flee the battle. 21)

Education And Freedom

As Genghis Khan expanded his kingdom to gigantic dimensions, he excused the poor from taxes, encouraged literacy, and allowed religious freedom. This understanding, along with the possibility of total devastation, prompted many people to join the empire without much of a struggle. 22)

Shah Jahan

There are several direct descendants of Genghis Khan, and their impact can be observed throughout Eurasia and South Asia. One of them was Shah Jahan, the famous Mughal emperor who oversaw the Taj Mahal's construction. 23)

End Of Golden Islamic Age

The Mongols utterly devastated Baghdad in 1258, marking the end of the Islamic Golden Age. They destroyed Baghdad's history of knowledge as part of their deconstruction of the city, and the Tigris river was reported to have flowed black from all of the ink from the books that were tossed in its waters. 24)

Not Washing Clothes

The Mongols did not believe in washing their own garments since it polluted the water and disrupted the water cycle. 25)

Death Toll

World War II was the bloodiest conflict in human history; nevertheless, the Mongol invasions were almost as lethal, despite the fact that the world population was just one-fifth of what it was during WWII. They were responsible for the deaths of as many as 40 million people. 26)

Horses Not Only For Transportation

During a campaign, soldiers were given limited rations and were trained to go for days at a time without eating. Their horses were not only their mode of transportation, but also, in times of need, a source of food, water, and warmth. 27)

Silk Armor

Mongols wore silk clothes, despite the fact that they were not fashionistas. To defend themselves from arrows, they would wear a silk shirt under their armor. The silk threads would mesh around the arrowhead, making arrow removal more hygienic and less harmful. 28)


A nomadic civilization like the Mongols required the development of movable dwellings. The ger appears. A ger was a simple, prefabricated dwelling made of wood, pelts, and ropes. Men, women, and the old each had their own quarters. 29)

Great Hunt

During the winter, a grand hunt would be summoned, with the Khan leading the charge with the first kill. From March through October, it is illegal to kill animals. 30)

mongol_empire.txt · Last modified: 2021/10/14 03:04 by eziothekilla34