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Originated from pastoral tribes

The Incas originated from pastoral tribes that inhabited the area around present-day Cuzco in the 12th century. 1)

Manco Cápac

In the early 13th century, the first Incan city-state was established in the mountainous areas near Cuzco. The founder of the kingdom was Manco Cápac. Over the years, the kingdom expanded, whether through war or peaceful assimilation of the population. 2)


Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of Cuzco into a new one called Tahuantinsuyu, which in Ketchua means Empire of the Four Parts or United Four Parts. 3)

Machu Picchu

Pachacuti is believed to have built Machu Picchu. The exact purpose of the settlement is unknown; it may have been both a summer residence for the ruler and an agricultural outpost. 4)

Túpac Inca Yupanqui

The greatest commander is considered to be Túpac Inca Yupanqui, son of Pachacuti, who expanded his father's empire several times between 1463 and 1493. 5)

Chimor Kingdom

The Chimor Kingdom was famous for producing distinctive black dyed pottery and the most technologically advanced metallurgy in pre-Columbian times. 6)

Sapa Inca

The rulers of the Incan state were called Sapa Inca. The first Sapa Inca was Manco Cápac, who ruled from 1200 to 1230, and the last was Túpac Amaru, who held office from 1571 to 1572. 7)

10 to 14 million people

During the empire's heyday, there were probably 10 to 14 million people living there. 8)

Civil war

In 1529, a grueling and bloody civil war began in the Inca Empire. It is referred to as the War of the Two Brothers or the Inca War of Succession. The conflict was fought between Huáscar and his half-brother Atahualpa, sons of Huayna Capac, the last Sapa Inca to expand the borders of the Empire from 1493 to 1525.9)


Huayna Capac died of smallpox, which was brought to the continent by the Spanish. Although he had no direct contact he contracted smallpox. 10)


In 1529 Pizarro returned to Spain and received royal permission to conquer the region and become viceroy. 11)

Manco Inca Yupanqui

After the Spanish conquered the empire, Manco Inca Yupanqui became the leader of the Incas. Atahualpa's son was appointed to this position by the Spanish. At first, the cooperation was good, a large part of the elite was pleased with the arrival of the newcomers and hoped that the kingdom would grow and flourish under the new rule. As it later turned out, apart from the overexploitation of natural and human resources and the destruction of Inca culture and history, the Spanish had nothing to offer. 12)

Class structure

At the head of the empire was Sapa Inca, considered a divine being. The second in command was the chief priest Willaq Umu, usually the king's brother or someone closely related to him. The state was built on the principle of a federation of four regions called suyu. These regions were divided into smaller provinces called wamani. 13)


The Inca empire was divided into quadrants (suyu). The most populous suyu was Chinchasuyu, the northwestern region of the empire formed on the ruins of the Chimu kingdom. Antisuyu was the northeastern quadrant of the empire, most of which was located in the mountainous areas of the Andes. It was one of the less populated territories. Qullasuyu was the southeastern quarter, incorporated into the empire by Túpac Inca Yupanqui after 1471. The smallest quadrant was Cuntisuyu, located southwest of Cuzco. 14)


According to Incan tradition, child sacrifices were made whenever Sapa Inca died or the land was attacked by disasters and famine. 15)

incas.txt · Last modified: 2021/10/20 04:30 by aga