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Alexander The Great

His Father Was Philip II Of Macedon

Philip II of Macedon was a famous king who vanquished Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea. He aspired to build the League of Corinth, a federation of Greek states, with himself as the elected hegemon (leader). 1)

Macedonian Army

Philip transformed the Macedonian army into the most lethal force of the period by developing his infantry phalanx, cavalry, siege equipment, and logistical system. Alexander received the best army of the time as a result of Philip's reforms. 2)


Alexander was educated by one of history's most prominent philosophers. Philip II hired Aristotle on the condition that he restore his home, Stageria, which he had previously destroyed. 3)

First Campaign

In the spring of 335 BC, Alexander sought to fortify his northern boundaries and put down multiple revolts. He vanquished many tribes and states before razing a rebellious Thebes. He then began his Asia campaign. 4)

First Major Battle Against The Persians

When Alexander crossed into Asia Minor in 334 BC, he was met by a Persian army waiting on the other side of the Granicus river. In the ensuing attack, Alexander was nearly kiled. 5)

Granicus River

After tremendous bloodshed, Alexander's army triumphed and routed the Persian army. Despite their attempts to surrender, Alexander encircled and murdered the Greek mercenaries serving alongside the Persians. 6)

Battle Of Issus

In 333 BC, he decisively defeated the Persian King Darius III at Issus (modern-day Syria). Alexander's army was possibly half the size of Darius', but the narrow battleground insured that Darius' higher numbers were insignificant. 7)

Darius's Wife And Mother Captured

Darius retreated eastwards after a Macedonian triumph. Darius' abandoned baggage train, with the Persian King's sumptuous royal tent, mother, and wife, was promptly captured by Alexander. Alexander assured them that they would not be harmed. 8)

Battle of Gaugamela

After defeating Darius again in 331 BC, one of his satraps overthrew him and assassinated him (barons). Darius effectively ended the Achaemenid dynasty, and Alexander became king of both Persia and Macedon. 9)

India In 327 BC

Not content with conquering Persia, Alexander wished to conquer the entire known world, which was popularly believed to be bordered by the same ocean that surrounded India. In 327 BC, he crossed the Hindu Kush into ancient India.10)

Battle Of The Hydaspes

In 326 BC, Alexander's army fought against King Porus of the Pauravas. Alexander was victorious once more, but the war was costly. He attempted to lead his troops across the Hyphasis (Beas) river, but they refused and requested that he return. Alexander agreed. 11)

Alexander Never Lost A Battle

Alexander was substantially outnumbered in many of his most critical and decisive triumphs. But his army was made up of well-trained veterans, and Alexander was a master of military strategy. He was also willing to take enormous risks, lead charges, and fight with his men. All of this tipped the scales in his favor. 12)

Greek And Persian Union

Alexander organized a mass wedding at Susa in 324 BC, where he and his officers married noble Persian wives in an attempt to merge the Greek and Persian cultures and legitimize himself as King of Asia. Almost all of these marriages, however, ended in divorce. 13)

Big Drinker

Alexander has a reputation for being a heavy drinker. In one drunken outburst, he argued with his buddy and general Cleitus the Black, then killed him by thrusting a javelin into his breast. Some believe that his early death was caused by drunkenness. 14)

He Died Aged Just 32

In ancient times, families may expect very high child mortality, but noble children who reached adulthood could easily live into their 50s, therefore Alexander's death was early. In 323 BC, he died in Babylon. 15)

alexander_the_great.txt · Last modified: 2021/10/22 00:52 by eziothekilla34