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Nicotinic acid

Nicotinic acid, better known as vitamin PP or niacin, is essential to the proper functioning of the body. It is commonly found in plant and animal products and has nothing to do with smoking. 1)

Fluoroantimonic acid

Fluoroantimonic acid is a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5), which is the strongest known super acid. It is estimated to be 20 trillion times more powerful than concentrated sulfuric acid. 2)

pH of Coca Cola

Coca-Cola has a pH of 2.5, which is slightly higher than lemon juice and slightly lower than orange juice. Don't worry, it's not dangerous because our stomach has an acidic environment. 3)

Acid Rain

Acid rain is mainly caused by atmospheric pollution from sulfur dioxide, which forms sulfuric acid when dissolved in water. Sulfur dioxide is emitted during the burning of fossil fuels. In recent years, the percentage of nitric acid in acid rain has been increasing as a result of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions, but sulfuric acid is still the main culprit. 4)

Pure water pH

Pure water has a pH near 7 at room temperature, but this value decreases as the temperature increases. It is also worth noting that water exposed to air becomes slightly acidic due to the absorption of carbon dioxide. 5)

Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid H2SO4 is an inorganic chemical compound in the oxygen group of sulfuric acids, one of the strongest acids - all systems with a potency greater than 100% sulfuric acid are called super acids. It is sometimes called the blood of the chemical industry, due to its use in many key syntheses. The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are hydrogen sulfates (MIHSO4) and sulfates (MI2SO4). 6)

Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid, H2CO3 - an inorganic chemical compound, is a weak and unstable oxygenic acid formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with water. With metals, it forms stable salts - bicarbonates and carbonates. This acid in aqueous solutions is a very unstable compound, it quickly decomposes even after slight heating; as a result, it is not possible to obtain a concentrated solution of this acid. However, it is possible to obtain pure, stable (theoretical half-life is 180,000 years) carbonic acid in solid and gaseous states - the key is the absence of liquid water, a single molecule that accelerates the decomposition of the acid molecule by up to a billion times. Aqueous solutions of carbonic acid become stable at pressures >2.4 GPa (about 24,000 atm) and temperatures >97 °C. The possibility of H2CO3 molecules in space is also being considered, including in the tails of comets and in the polar caps at the poles of Mars. 7)

Boric acid

Boric acid (Latin: Acidum boricum), H3BO3 is an inorganic chemical compound, a weak acid occurring in nature as the mineral sassolin. The salts and esters of boric acid are borates. Boric acid was first obtained from borax by Wilhelm Homberg (1652-1715), hence it was later known as sal sedativum Hombergi (“Homberg's sedative salt”). The presence of boric acid or its salts has been found in sea salt and plants (especially fruits). 8)

Nitric acid

Nitric acid is an inorganic chemical compound, one of the strongest oxygen acids. The acid residue in it is a nitrate group containing nitrogen in the fifth oxidation state. Pure nitric acid is a colorless liquid. During prolonged storage, it undergoes partial decomposition and turns yellow or brown; this decomposition is accelerated by elevated temperature and light. It smokes in the air, and the release of brown nitric oxide can be observed. 9)

Phosphonic acid

Phosphonic acid is an inorganic chemical compound, an oxygenic acid, containing phosphorus in the third oxidation state. Pure phosphonic acid is a white, crystalline solid at room temperature, very soluble in water. It has slight reducing properties. The anhydride of phosphonic acid is tetraphosphorus hexoxide (P 4O 6). Phosphonic acid salts and esters are phosphonites or H-phosphonates. Phosphonic acid is obtained by hydrolyzing phosphorus anhydride or trichloride (PCl 3). The reaction of phosphonic acid with condensing agents (e.g., with pivaloyl chloride) leads to diphosphonic acid, which is a mild phosphonylating agent for alcohols and amines. 10)

Hydrogen cyanide

Hydrogen cyanide, HCN is an inorganic chemical compound made up of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, which is a colorless, volatile, and highly poisonous liquid with an odor of bitter almonds (which may not be perceptible by some people, however). With water, it forms weak hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid), whose salts are called cyanides. It has found use in chemical synthesis and analysis and as a pesticide. During World War II it was used under the name Zyklon B to poison prisoners in German death camps. It is classified as a general warfare poisoning agent and is included in Schedule 3 of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It was first obtained in solution form in 1780 or 1782 by Carl Scheele. In pure form, it was produced by Joseph Gay-Lussac in 1815. 11)

Formic acid

Formic acid, E236 is an organic chemical compound, the simplest carboxylic acid. Formic acid salts and esters are formates. It is found, among other things, in the hairs of stinging nettles and in the venom of ants[3]. It was discovered by Swedish chemist Johan Afzelius, who isolated it from dead ants. 12)

Acetic acid

Acetic acid is obtained industrially by carbonylation of methanol (Monsanto process, Acetica, and others), direct oxidation of butane or low-octane types of gasoline, and oxidation of acetaldehyde (obtained from acetylene). Acetic fermentation of ethanol obtained from the alcoholic fermentation of sugars is the source of food-grade acetic acid (vinegar, vinegar). Acetic acid is also a byproduct of dry wood distillation; it is isolated from the distillate by precipitating calcium acetate with lime (so-called “gray lime”), which is then reacted with sulfuric acid and distilled acetic acid. 13)

Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is obtained by heating sodium formate to about 400 °C, resulting in sodium oxalate, which is then converted into oxalic acid using dilute sulfuric acid. Other methods include passing carbon dioxide over metallic sodium or potassium at 360 °C, as well as oxidizing ethyl glycol or oxidizing many other organic compounds (such as sugars) with nitric acid. Oxalic acid can also be obtained by reacting acetylene with potassium permanganate. World production of oxalic acid and its esters is about 140,000 tons per year. 14)

Benzoic acid

Benzoic acid (Latin: acidum benzoicum), E210 is an organic chemical compound, the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. It is composed of a benzene ring containing one carboxyl group. When heated, it readily sublimates (enthalpy of sublimation about 90 kJ/mol). It is used as a food preservative. Its salts and esters are benzoates. The acceptable daily intake is 5 mg/kg body weight. 15)

Lactic acid

The formation of lactic acid in muscle is related to the process of burning glucose. In the absence of oxygen, glycolysis is the only possible way to produce energy for the cell (ATP). The end products of glycolysis are ATP, pyruvic acid, and NADH. To recover NAD+, a hydrogen atom is transferred from NADH to a pyruvic acid molecule with the formation of a lactic acid molecule (anaerobic respiration). Under aerobic conditions, lactic acid is not formed. Pyruvic acid and NADH are transferred to the mitochondria, where they are burned to CO2 and H2O in the presence of oxygen (hydrogen from NADH is burned and NAD+ is returned to the cytoplasm; aerobic respiration). In the presence of oxygen, mitochondria can also use substrates other than glucose, such as fatty acids. 16)

acids.txt · Last modified: 2022/10/11 02:18 by aga