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The nucleus accumbens, as part of the brain, plays an important role in the functioning of the sense of taste. Through the central part of the nucleus runs the solitary tract, containing afferent fibers from the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the vagus nerve, which transmit taste sensory information to it. The nucleus accumbens is one of the oldest parts of the brain. Its presence is found in all mammals. 1)
Aortic valve stenosis accounts for most of all valve defects. This defect restricts blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta, causing left ventricular hypertrophy. The most common cause of this disorder is calcification. 2)
Even without eye movement, the human visual field extends over 180 degrees - we can see things out of the corner of our eye that is slightly behind us. When we allow our eyes to move, the field of vision increases to about 200 degrees. 3)
The gut-brain axis refers to the biochemical signaling that occurs between the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. The gut microbial flora communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through neural pathways. Numerous scientific studies indicate that gut microflora is involved in the regulation of anxiety, pain, cognitive dysfunction, and human mood. 4)
Rudolph Virchow was the founder of the theory of cellular pathology, which, although erroneous (he was famous for his unfortunate polemics with, among others, Pasteur), contributed greatly to the development of modern pathology. He erroneously claimed that leukocytes play an essential role in bacterial transport around the body. He was one of the first to perform biopsies, formulated the concept of leukemia and amyloidosis, left valuable works on cancer, thrombosis, embolism, and tuberculosis, and dealt with medical terminology. He extended the cell theory. 5)